The Shores of Dallamar
Padded: Padded armor is common protection among poorer men at arms, and is used as a base layer for other heavy forms of armor. It is quilted cloth, usually linen or wool, and is stuffed with cloth scraps or horsehair. It can be somewhat bulky. Padding worn under armor is usually less bulky than a padded armor meant to stand alone. Cutting padded cloth is surprisingly hard and has a DR of 2. A thinner under layer of padded armor adds a DR of 1.
Leather: Clothing can be fashioned from leather, and has a basic DR of 1. Such leather garments can be purchased at a hideworker or a clothier. Leather armor is heavier leather which has been specially prepared using lacquer or other stiffeners. Upper body protection is often layered / scale armor of hardened leather attached to a soft leather, or, less commonly, a breastplate of hardened leather. Such specially prepared leather has a DR of 3.
Ring / splint / studded: Ring armor is leather armor which is reinforced with metal rings and/or strips. It has a DR of 4. Some brigandine / coats of plates may be considered ring armor, and others are more similar to scale; it just depends on how many plates there are and how much they overlap and protect Some ring/splint is worn over a mail shirt by wealthy and strong knights. An example can be seen here.
Scale: Scale armor is composed of overlapping scales of steel which are attached (usually by rivets) to leather or heavy cloth. Such armor would also include heavy brigandine / coats of plates. It is generally only worn on the upper body since it does not articulate well around the hips, legs and knees. It has a DR of 5.
Mail: Mail is the best of body protection for most knights and wealthy men at arms. Mail armor is tediously constructed from metal rings locked together to make a type of fabric. Each ring is, itself, individually riveted closed. Mail is highly resistant to cutting and can turn the stab of most common daggers and knives. It has a DR of 6.
Plate: Plate armor is the height of craft for an armorer. The know how does not presently exist to craft articulated plate armor. Plate is most commonly worn on the head as some form of helm, with some spot protection on the elbows and knees. Plate armor has a DR of 8.
A wealthy knight may wear a padded arming cap (DR 1) a camaille (DR 6) and a helm (DR 8), for a total DR of 15 on the head. The downside to this level of protection is weight and a decreasing awareness of one’s surroundings (in the form of penalties to Spot and Listen rolls..) The weights or various armors can be found here.